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    您的位置:首頁 >重慶發展>重慶市情>歷史沿革
    歷史沿革
    【字體:

    重慶是一座有著悠久歷史和燦爛文化的名城。200萬年前的巫山人化石,表明重慶地區是東方文明的發祥地。銅梁文化遺址證明,2萬年前的舊石器時代重慶就有人類活動。重慶地區還有巫山大溪、巴南干溪溝、江津王爺廟、合川沙梁子等數十處新石器時代遺址。公元前11世紀至公元前316年,巴人以重慶為首府,建立了巴國。極盛時期的巴國疆域“東至魚復(今奉節一帶),西至僰道,北接漢中,南及黔涪”。漢朝時期巴郡稱江州,魏晉南北朝時期先后更名為荊州、益州、巴州、楚州。隋文帝開皇元年(581年)以渝水(嘉陵江之古稱)繞城,改楚州為渝州。這就是重慶簡稱“渝”的來歷。北宋徽宗崇寧元年(1102年)改渝州為恭州。宋淳熙十六年(1189年),南宋光宗趙惇因先在恭州于正月封為恭王,二月受內禪即帝位,自詡“雙重喜慶”,遂將恭州升格為重慶府。重慶由此得名,迄今已800余年。1363年元末紅巾軍領袖明玉珍在重慶建大夏國。1891年重慶對外開埠。1911年11月23日,同盟會在重慶建立蜀軍政府。辛亥革命后,1921年設重慶商埠督辦,次年改為市政公所。1926年改市政公所為重慶商埠督辦公署,次年又改為市政廳。1929年劉湘改巴縣城區為市,重慶由此建市,改市政廳為市政府。抗日戰爭爆發后,國民政府由南京遷至重慶,于1937年11月定重慶為“戰時首都”,1939年5月5日國民政府頒令,將重慶升格為直轄市。1940年9月再定重慶為中華民國“陪都”,重慶成為世界反法西斯戰爭的國際名城。1949年11月30日重慶解放,成為西南軍政委員會駐地。1953年3月重慶改為中央直轄市。1954年7月重慶市并入四川省,改為四川省轄市。1983年重慶成為全國第一個城市綜合體制改革試點城市,也是享有省級經濟管理權限的計劃單列市,同年3月原四川省永川地區劃入重慶。1997年3月14日第8屆全國人民代表大會第5次會議決定,將原屬四川省的重慶市、萬縣市、涪陵市、黔江地區合并設立中央直轄市,同年6月18日重慶直轄市正式掛牌。2017年底,重慶市轄26個區、12個縣(其中少數民族自治縣4個)、一個經濟技術開發區(萬盛經開區)。

    重慶城市的形成與發展源遠流長。重慶城市在歷史上曾3次建都(巴國首都、夏國國都、抗戰陪都),3次設立中央直轄市。宋代重慶合川釣魚城的抗蒙戰爭,為世界反侵略戰爭做出了貢獻。近代重慶的革命斗爭史,特別是紅巖革命精神,一直為國人所傳頌。抗戰時期的重慶,在世界反法西斯戰爭史上書寫了重要的篇章。現代的重慶,為國家的現代化建設和繁榮富強鑄就著新的輝煌。中華人民共和國成立初期,重慶是中國八大城市之一,一直是西南的工業重鎮。經過60多年的建設,重慶已發展成為中國西部最大的城市,國家中心城市,長江上游的經濟中心。

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